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Author: Tax Matrix Team


The agriculture sector largely influences the economic, social and political lives of the majority of people in Zimbabwe.  It is also the source of sustenance for most rural Zimbabwean. At commercial level, the sector produces export crops such as tobacco, cotton and horticulture products which bring in foreign currency and improves the balance of payment. It is one of the biggest employer in Zimbabwe and also the key to the success of downstream industries, among them the manufacturing industry. To resonate with this thinking the government recently introduced command agriculture in order to boost agricultural production and create employment. The fiscal regime also contains a number of incentives which are dotted across the revenue Acts some of which we discuss in more detail in this article.

Special deductions

Farmers enjoy special deductions in respect expenditure incurred by them on soil erosion prevention, water conservation works, clearing of land, sinking of boreholes and wells, aerial and geophysical surveys and fencing highlighted in paragraph 2 of the 7th Schedule to the Income Tax Act (Chapter 23:06). This expenditure would ordinary be treated as capital expenditure deductibility against the income of the farmer would be spread over a number of years. For farmers it’s allowable as deduction in one go in the year the expenditure is incurred whether or not the work is still uncompleted. In addition, the expenditure does not suffer tax recoupment on disposal.

Suspension of Duty

Companies in the agriculture sector are able to import capital equipment duty free in terms of SI 6 of 2016. Application is made to the Ministry of Agriculture via recommendation from the Ministry of Finance. Capital equipment is not to be sold or disposed of within five years from the date from which it entered under rebate, both VAT and Excise Duty shall immediately become due and payable. No sell or disposal of equipment imported under the duty suspension shall be made within 10 years from the date of entry without a written permission from the commissioner. Applying for duty rebate saves on excise duty and saved amounts can be channeled towards other farming projects.

Livestock farmers

Livestock farmers enjoy relief when it comes to enforced sale of livestock, disposal of livestock due to epidemic disease or drought. They may elect to equally spread income from disposal over 3 years and election is irrevocable. They also benefit from re-stocking allowance which is 50% allowance on cost of purchasing livestock in a year of assessment, subject to the farming not exceeding the carrying capacity of the land upon restocking.  The allowance is in addition to the cost of purchase of the livestock which is also allowable as a deduction. A farmer must possess livestock in a drought or epidemic stricken area. In addition the farmer may also elect to equally spread income from other farming operations over 3 years in the event that such income is less than enforced sale taxable income. The election is also irrevocable.

Tobacco Farmers Incentives

According to the June quarterly review report by the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe “there was an increase in tobacco output which was triggered by to an increase in the number of growers, from below 100 000 farmers to more than 140 000 farmers in the current season.  As at 30th June 2018, cumulative tobacco sales amounted to 218.8 million kilograms, about 31% higher than the cumulative total of 167 million kilograms sold during the same period in 2017”. It is of my view that the proposal made to exclude tobacco farmers from producing a tax clearance certificate for purposes of 10% withholding tax on contracts in the 2018 National Budget may have been granted taking into account the output increase. The argument was that tobacco is a foreign currency earner and tobacco farmers are facing a lot of financial challenges such as the high cost of production, afforestation levy and other costs hence the need of scrapping of 10% withholding tax so as not to discourage the farming of the crop. Therefore a contract for the purchase of auction or contract tobacco in terms of which tobacco levy may be required to be withheld is not subject  to 10% withholding in terms of s80 of the Income Tax Act (Chapter 23:06). This is a tax advantage to the tobacco farmers over other taxpayers who may be required to produce tax clearance in the absence of which 10% withholding tax is applicable on their contracts.

Anchor Farmer Incentive

“Anchor Company” means a company that provides inputs, agronomic advice and marketing opportunities to a group of outgrower farmers and small or medium enterprises. “Outgrower farmer” means a farmer who is a party to a scheme or contract where under an anchor company supplies inputs, agronomic advice and marketing opportunities in return for the outgrower farmer selling or delivering the contract or scheme produce to the anchor company or other person designated by the scheme or contract.  Effective 1 January 2018 anchor companies are entitled to a deduction of expenditure of technical and support services incurred in assisting outgrower farmers plus 50% of such expenditure. A typical example of anchor and outgrower farming relationship is poultry contract farming.

VAT Zero rating of farming inputs

Farming inputs and equipment are also subject to VAT at 0% entitling the farmer to input tax claim on his inputs. Among the zero rated products animal feed, animal remedy, fertilizer, plants, seeds and pesticides. These have the effecting lowering cost of farming.


As a farmer, your cost of production may be lessened and the farming process made enjoyable if you have the adequate knowledge of tax incentives to take advantage of.


The general design of the VAT system is that businesses with certain prescribed taxable turnover or supplies are required to levy and collect VAT on such supplies and to reclaim input tax incurred on their purchases. Where the VAT collected from their customers exceeds input tax, the result is a VAT payable to the ZIMRA and VAT refund when input tax for a tax period exceeds output tax. VAT refund is sanctioned by s 44 of the VAT Act, Chapter 23:11. Getting the VAT refund is one of the insurmountable tasks for businesses in almost every tax jurisdiction and Zimbabwe is not an exception. Tax authorities require to be reasonably assured that only genuine cases of refunds are made to taxpayers and often carry an audit of VAT refunds. The World Bank Group Flash Report (16th Edition): Doing Business 2019 Zimbabwe highlighted that it takes about 48.6 weeks for VAT to be processed and paid to an operator by the Zimbabwean Authority Revenue and about 75%-100% of the refunds are audited. The refund period allowed by the law is 30 days. Even in instances where taxpayers have supplied all the required documentation as requested by the authority for verification, delays are still experienced. Delayed refund creates cash flow problems for businesses. This piece of writing ventilates the law on VAT refunds and offers some tips to businesses on how to reduce the VAT refund cycle.

Law regulating refunds

Section 44 of the VAT Act provides for refund of excessive input tax i.e. input tax plus adjustments that exceeds output tax plus adjustments in any tax period as long as the claim is made within 6 years of the end of the relevant tax period. The refund should exceed the prescribed amount of US$60 and carried forward to the next period if less than this amount. Besides normal VAT refunds, other refunds may arise from additional tax, penalty or interest paid in excess of that required by the law or when an operator has been refunded less than the amount properly refundable to him.  A refund cannot be granted if the Commissioner is of the view that the refund of the amount will result in an unjust enrichment to the registered operator. This applies mainly to amounts erroneously collected from the operator’s customers which may be difficult to be channeled back to such customers. VAT refunds may also arise upon cancellation of the VAT registration and this shall be refunded in full. A refund can be used to prepay taxes or offset against other taxes due by the taxpayer to the ZIMRA. It may be set off against any amount of tax, interest or penalty levied under any Act of Parliament administered by the Commissioner; namely against VAT due, income tax, PAYE, capital gains tax, customs duty, excise duty and other withholding taxes, etc. due by the registered operator. An operator must write a letter instructing the Commissioner to effect the set off. The Commissioner has the powers to withhold the refund on the pretext of an outstanding return for any tax period, until such a return has been furnished.  The decision by the Commissioner to deny a refund, must be communicated to an operator through VAT 12 which must be delivered to the registered operator.

VAT audits

Generally the ZIMRA has been paying refunds after completion of the audit. The commonly cited reasons for refund rejection include outstanding returns, tax payments, defective returns (not properly completed), wrong physical address, no banking details supplied by the operator, among others. Taxpayers must also ensure they have e-filed an input tax schedule and maintain original tax invoices claimed as input tax as these are often required to complete refund audit. Other important documents are valid debit and credit notes. Input tax should be claimed on the basis of a valid tax invoice or fiscalised invoice with an electronic signature, which must be original copies. The ZIMRA officials may visit the operator’s premises as part of refund verification process and failure to locate operator can result in the refund being rejected or withheld.

Interest on delayed refunds

Interest is payable on delayed refunds. Section 20 of the VAT General Regulations, 2003 (SI273 of 2003) also provides for the ZIMRA to pay interest to a registered operator who has not been refunded within 30 days of the Commissioner receiving the tax return or the tax refund application. This does not however apply in cases where the delay is caused by the operator’s fault such as submitting incomplete or defective information in any material.  Under such circumstances, interest shall start to accrue from the date the registered operator rectifies the return and satisfies the Commissioner that the incompleteness or defectiveness thereof does not affect the amount of refund, or the date on which the Commissioner makes an assessment upon the registered operator reflecting the amount properly refundable, whichever occurs first. Interest is also not payable in situations where the Commissioner is prevented from determining the amount refundable due to inability to gain access to the registered operator’s books of accounts. The Commissioner has on reasonable time from the receipt of the tax return, made a written or verbal request to the registered operator to access such books and records. Under such circumstances the 30 day period of refund will be suspended from the date the letter is delivered or posted, by registered mail or verbal request is made until the date on which such access is granted.


In order to facilitate speedy processing of their refunds operators should note the following: All invoices must reflect correct VAT registration numbers for the supplier and receiver of goods and services – this will ensure that all invoices (inter alia) are correct and in order. Turnover as per VAT returns must match the one in the financial statements; variances may require explanation which may delay processing of the refund.  Maintain documents as evidence of proof of writing off bad debts where you have written back the VAT paid on bad debts. Keep documentary proof of zero-rating where you have supplied zero rated goods or services to be entitled to claim input otherwise the ZIMRA will raise a red flag. Submit returns regardless of whether there is no VAT liability and no VAT payment due, as this is a prerequisite to every registered operator.


It is a prerequisite for a VAT registered operator to keep up to date and authentic documentation because for one to get a refund there is need for supporting documents. You should approach professional accountants to handle your tax affairs and make sure you have complied with the VAT compliance requirements prescribed by the law and the standard of risk based refund, respectively.